S. Preston Hicks (V935CF54@TEMPLEVM.BITNET)
Sun, 6 Nov 1994 17:25:13 EST

Oh boy, here we go again. People! People! Listen up! Let's not get into
the same spiral as last time. We were snapping at each other and not very
effective in stopping Rushton's pseudo-scientific material. Everyone on
Anthro-l knows his material is, at most, something to wipe your feet upon
when coming in from the rain. Let's ignore it. He'll never go away but,
this list doesn't have to deal with him. If anything, I would like to see
the poeple on this list deal with his posts through sending private messages
instead of giving him the satisfaction of seeing us turn on one another.
The logical point of attack, if anyone feels like being bothered with his
material, is the level/type of education received by the groups in
his theories. After reading this material, it will be easy to see
Rushton's (El J.) THEORIES are nonsense.

Everyone knows the situation of African-Americans, historically speaking,
in their attempts to 1) gain access to an education, 2) gain access to
educational facilities, equipment, materials, etc. which are equal in quality
to those being used by white children. I am confident that an investigation
into the public school system presented to the African-American would reduce
Rushton's (El J.) logic to mere RACIALISM (if you don't know the meaning of
"racialism".....look it up!!!!). He presents his comparison as if the groups
being discussed were athletes trained to compete in some type of educational
olympics. Would a race be "fair" if some of the participants had broken arms??

Questions to investigate prior to reading any of Rushton's (El J.)
materials are 1) What are the educational backgrounds of the groups being
discussed? 2) Is there/was there educational oppression? If so, how long and
to what degree?? 3)How did history serve to strengthen or weaken
educational interests. 4) What is the general preception of the individual
groups being compared?? (this obviuosly affects performance) 5) Is the author
a racialist looking to make money????

There's no need to buy Rushton's material......don't waste your money. If you
know his ambitions, there won't be any room for him to fool you into
thinking of him as anything other than a "snake oil salesman". Investigate the
school systems of the groups being compared. In America, the public school
system is unequal in the level of education delivered to its young people
.....it has always been this way. What level of education is received by the
black people of the Caribean, South Africa, Cuba, Mexico, America, England,
Puerto Rico or any other place in this world where Africans have been shipped
during the slave trade??? Compare this level to that delivered to the Europeans
of those areas......what do you think you'll find????

My objective is NOT to offend anyone nor is it to spur personal arguments.
I realise many groups in this world have been educationally, politically and
economically oppressed...my contention, for Africans, is that the level of
oppression delivered to Africans has never been felt by any other group in
this world (excluding women collectively). Rushton does not have any material
at his disposal which would give him a clue as to how long it would take a
group to recover from this type of abuse........ a study of this type has
never been done...a study of this type isn't possible because there isn't a
model which has completed this tremendous cycle ......but, African-
Americans are on their way.

Educational programs for African-Americans are disgraceful. Examine
pre-schools, elementary schools, junior high schools and high schools .....the
common thread uncovered will be governmental neglect.

Would any of the "smart" people this list arrange a race between an individual
who jogs everyday and an individual with boken legs (broken by the
individual who jogs everyday)?? I didn't think so. Well my friends, this is
comparison offered by Rushton (El J.) and Murray. I write this post for those
of you who feel Rushton (El J.) and Murray may have a leg to stand on.....
..I wanted to tell you they're depending on your ignorance of history,
specifically, the history of education, to provide them with money for winter

DON'T BUY THE BOOK!!!!!! This is the best weapon againt these men. Get it
from the library if you really want to read it but, by all means, don't buy it.

Are there any anthropologists who've done studies of African-Americans through
living with them???? If so, could someone give the WHO, WHEN, WHERE and HOW.

Mr. Rushton, how can you point a finger at the individual with the broken leg
for losing the race.....everyone knew he/she would lose.....why are you content
with presenting the result of this race as genetic when it's obviously
the result of some brutal event in history??????

Please! If there are any involved in education on this list who've studied
the history of public school education (the quality of), could you please give
Mr. Rushton a wake up call. I hate to ruin your day Rushton.....but, you've
been unmasked!!!! Your statistics mean nothing in light of this evidence.
I won't argue on some abstract point which neither you nor I could prove....
...so don't tell me to look at any of your data......you should have the
heart to examine my questions regarding the history of education for African-
Americans but, you won't do it....it would hurt your book sales. I would be
surprised if you addressed this post. If you do have the nerve, Mr. Rushton,
don't avoid the impact of history on your material....be direct in your
answers. I suspect you'll post some reference to abstract material
and try to pull away from the issue ...it's alright, I expect it.

In regards to colonialism, what type of colonialism are we talking about?
I see you avoided specifics on this issue.....try to be a little more
clever in your deceptions.....there isn't just one brand of colonialism.

People, let's have Rushton actively involved in this thread. Usually he
makes an abstract statement then disappears while we argue
agmonst ourselves. Let's see how commited he is to this list.
If there's no response to our replies, we'll drop this discussion.
Direct all questions to Rushton concerning Rushton material. I'm confident
he'll shrink from this list quickly.

----------------------------Original message----------------------------
From: SMTP%"bganet@lists.colorado.edu" 4-NOV-1994 19:51:46.03
Subj: RE: APA advisory explained and corrected (?)

Date: Fri, 4 Nov 1994 17:43:53 -0700
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From: RUSHTON@sscl.uwo.ca
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Subject: RE: APA advisory explained and corrected (?)
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X-Comment: BBoard for the Members of BGA

More from Rushton on race.

First, the President of the Educational Testing Service has also
issued a press release stating that their tests are not tests of
intelligence and do not bear on the issue of nor can be used for
examining whether genetics underlie group differences in IQ. They
criticize Murray for implying otherwise. More attempts at damage
control by PC.

Good luck trying to get APS or even BGA to take a firm stand on this
overly sensitive issue.

Here are my own thoughts on why genes underlie the black-white-Asian
gradient in AVERAGE differences (with no predictions to any particular

1. The evidence goes well beyond the simple syllogism usually
provided that (a) IQ test scores are heritable in black, white, and
Asian populations, (b) Asian IQs are higher than white IQs which are
higher than black IQs, so (c) the Asian-white-black differences are
partly heritable.

2. Although the black-white IQ gap averages at 15 points, the
difference is greater on some items and subtests than on others. The
difference is smallest on more environmentally influenced items
(repeating 4 digits forward; knowing the meaning of words or place of
capital cities) and greates on more heritable items (repeating 4
digits backward; mentally rotating a 3-dimensional drawing).

3. This is the opposite of what is predicted by a purely
environmental argument. It is evidence such as this that has led many
(a plurality, most) experts in psychometrics to conclude that part of
the black-white difference in IQ is genetic.

4. The more genetically weighted an item or subtest is the more it
differentiates blacks from whites. These genetic weightings are
established by examining the effects of inbreeding in cousin
marriages, which depresses scores on some subtests more than on
others, as well as by examining the similarities of twins and other
siblings. Moreover, the black-white difference in IQ scores is
directly associated with a black-white difference in head size (and by
inference, brain size). For example, black and white children matched
for IQ scores do not differ in head size.

Brain sixe differences established using three converging procedures
(autopsy, endocranial size, external head measures) show the racial
gradient and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and head
perimeter measures show that brain size correlates with IQ scores.

Trans-racial adoption studies show that Korean children adopted by
white parents grow to have IQ scores higher than white children
whereas African children grow to have lower scores than white
children. Adopted children with two black biological parents fare
worse than adopted children with one white and one black biological

Much additional evidence for the genetic hypothesis is reviewed in my
book Race, Evolution, and Behavior (Transaction, New Jersey). The IQ
gradient is to be observed in Africa, the Caribbean, Europe, the
Pacific Rim, the USA, and now also here in Canada in English Speaking
Toronto and French Speaking Quebec. (It would be interesting to see
studies of Communist Cuba cut off from elsewhere for 30 years and a
very multi-racial society).

The universality of the pattern calls into question traditional
explanations based on white racism, colonialism, the legacy of
slavery, and other factors specific to particular regions. Hong Kong
is still a white colony and virtually without natural resources and
yet thrives because of its human capital.

It has to be accepted that evolution produces populations with
different profil profiles of strengths and weaknesses.

Phil Rushton
University of Western Ontario
London, Canada