Brian Leigh Molyneaux (MOLY@CHARLIE.USD.EDU)
Thu, 9 Dec 1993 11:37:40 -0600

1993 Volume 2, Number 1

Charles E. Orser, Jr., Editor
Brian Leigh Molyneaux, Associate Editor


The WAC newsletter is still in its infancy, but we have
already seen some significant developments that will
increase our access to various parts of the world. Our
first edition available electronically (WACNEWS2)
was posted to subscribers of ANTHRO-L (on Bitnet) and
sci.archaeology (on Internet), attracting considerable
interest in WAC and its activities. We also prepared a
Spanish version of the printed edition and hope that
versions in other languages will follow.

Translation is an arduous task, and we are grateful to
Gustavo Politis and Marcela Leipus for the great effort
they made.

The life of a newsletter is news: we can bring your
archaeology to the attention of the world if you keep
in touch. Please send materials for WAC NEWS to our

Dr. Charles E. Orser, Jr.
4641 Midwestern Archaeological
Research Center
Illinois State University
Normal, IL 61761 USA.

Or, via email, to me: Dr. Brian Leigh Molyneaux
(Internet: moly@charlie.usd.edu).

This issue of the newsletter is made possible by the
generous support of the Department of Anthropology,
University of South Dakota.


WAC has made a determined effort to provide
archaeological information as widely as possible, as
many of our Members have no other way of keeping
abreast of developments in world archaeology. We are
especially concerned with areas where access to
information is difficult. Over the years, we have
provided a variety of services, including the provision
of computer equipment and training (such as the
archaeology and computing courses conducted by
Sebastian Rahtz at the Deccan Postgraduate College,
Pune, India and by Kris Lockyear at the Institute of
Archaeology in Bucharest, Romania). Our main task,
however, is the distribution of books and other printed
matter. Not only do we provide many copies of WAC
NEWS and the World Archaeological Bulletin to
individuals and libraries without cost, we also
distribute newly published scholarly books to groups
and institutions around the world. During the first
Inter-Congress on Archaeological Ethics and the
Treatment of the Dead, for example, WAC, with the
financial assistance of the Onaway Trust, was able to
provide copies of two One World Archaeology titles
to representatives of many indigenous communities.

Most recently, the One World Archaeology series
editor, Peter Ucko, and Andrew Wheatcroft, a
representative of the publisher, Routledge, have
provided sets of One World Archaeology volumes to
institutions which would otherwise have had no way to
obtain them because of lack of funding. Copies were
taken to the Kenya Inter-Congress to be given to some
Regional Representatives for distribution to locations
where the most scholars would have access to the
OWA books.

In this latest initiative, we have heard from a number
of institutions that have received One World
Archaeology books: Argentina (one set to the Faculty
of Natural Sciences and the Museum, National
University of La Plata, La Plata; one set to the
Ethnographic Museum and Library of the University
of Buenos Aires); the Czech Republic (several
volumes to the Institute of Archaeology, Prague);
China (two sets to Beijing University, Beijing); Poland
(one set to the Institute of Prehistory, University of
Poznan, and several volumes each to the Institute of
Archaeology, Jagiellonski University, Krakow, the
Muzeum Archeologiczne, Srodkowego Nadodrza W
Zielonej Gorze, the Department of Archaeology,
Wroclaw University, and the Institute of Archaeology
and Ethnology, Warsaw); Romania (one set to the
Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest); Russia (four sets,
to the Institute of Archaeology, St. Petersburg, the
Moscow Institute of Archaeology, Kiev, and to
Buryatia (Ulhan-Ude)); and Uruguay (one set to the
University of the Republic).

Many have said how important the addition of these
volumes to their collections have been. Dr. Barbara


Stolpiak, Head of the Library of the Institute of
Prehistory, University of Poznan, for example,
commented after receiving 13 volumes of the One
World Archaeology series that the very bad financial
situation in Central Europe has meant that they are
unable to buy even the most important archaeological
publications. And Dr. Edgardo Rolleri wrote:
Donaciones de este tipo contribuyen significativamente
a la arqueolog!a y a la antropolog!a de nuestro pa!s y
ayudan a la formaci"n cient!fica de nuevos
profesionales. Sin duda, al apoyo brindado por el
World Archaeological Congress redundar en el
mejoramiento del la ense$anza de la arqueolog!a en

For a publisher to make such an important and
generous gesture is exceedingly rare. WAC is indebted
to Routledge for making the volumes available and for
working with us to continue the OWA series (and four
more volumes deriving from WAC 2 in Venezuela are
in press and will be published in 1994). If you agree
and would like to encourage the publisher to continue
this program, please send Routledge a note expressing
your personal thanks. You may write to Mr Andrew
Wheatcroft, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE,
United Kingdom. Better still, urge your library to
purchase copies of OWA volumes and buy them
yourself if you are able. There is a special 35%
discount to Institutional Members of WAC which buy
the whole OWA series in one go.

It is important to point out here that WAC
Memberships have not covered any of the above (or
very little); it is all due to the WAC Charitable
Company - to whom thanks are due!

On another matter, the next issue of WAC NEWS will
carry an account of the Kenya Inter-Congress and a
summary of the Executive meeting there. The
Inter-Congress was extraordinarily successful and the
effects of it will be felt throughout our archaeological
community for a long time!

Finally, on a very sad note, this issue carries obituaries
of two people who were important to archaeology and
WAC. I did not know Professor Glock but those who
did praised his contributions to our field. I did know
Professor Zamora. The last time I talked with him was
at the meeting of the American Anthropological
Association last year in San Francisco. Our
conversation, of course, was about WAC. Mario was a
very gentle man, full of enthusiasm, a man very
important to WAC's beginnings. We will miss both
these colleagues and extend our most sincere
sympathies to their families, friends and colleagues.

Professor Larry J. Zimmerman, Secretary
Archaeology Laboratory
University of South Dakota
Vermillion, SD 57069-2390
Internet: lzimm@charlie.usd.edu


A New Newletter for Issues Concerning
Archaeology and the Public

The Center for Archaeology in the Public Interest
is now publishing a newsletter for professional
archaeologists. Issues addressed by the newsletter
include: ethics in archaeology, the interactions between
archaeologists and local communities, the destruction
of archaeological sites, and public outreach and
community development programs. The newsletter is
published three times yearly and allows archaeologists
to report on successes and shortcomings in their own
attempts to communicate and work with the public and
to discuss ethical issues. Each issue also contains a
bibliography on one of the subjects. Both US and
international topics are of interest to the editors. If you
are interested in submitting an article or comments on
these topics please contact Heidi A. Lennstrom, Center
for Archaeology in the Public Interest, Department of
Anthropology, 425 University Blvd., Indiana U. -
Purdue U., Indianapolis IN, 46202, (317) 274-1406, or


A New Malaysian Archaeology Journal

The Secretary of the Association of Malaysian
Archaeologists, Kamal Kamaruzaman, invites
contributions to the Association's journal, Jurnal
Arkeologi Malaysia. It is bilingual and costs US $5
(including surface mail postage). The journal accepts
any articles on archaeology, but especially those
dealing with Malaysia and Southeast Asia, and is
particularly interested in papers on tourism and new
developments in method and theory.

To subscribe, send a letter to:

Kamal Kamaruzaman
Secretary IAAM
History Department
43600 Bangi

FAX: (603) 8252836


A New Southeast Asian Newsletter

Announcing a new newsletter: Southeast Asian
Archaeology International Newsletter (Editors:
Elisabeth A. Bacus & Rasmi Shoocondej, Museum of
Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Michigan 48109, USA).

The major purpose of this semi-annual newsletter
(Oct. - Nov. & April - May issues) is to disseminate
information on current research in Southeast Asia and
other relevant information (information on upcoming


conferences and symposia, short reports from recent
conferences and symposia, workshops, recent
publications (books, articles, MA theses, PhD
dissertations), grants received and granting programs,
etc.) using an informal format. The editors hope to
encourage communication among archaeologists
residing in different countries who share a research
commitment to Southeast Asian archaeology.

Please send submissions to the editors at the listed


An Archaeology and History Fund Established in

In January 1993 the scientific fund Rudi-Maetonium
(Thracian culture study) was founded in Chisinau
(Republic of Moldova) by the Museum of
Archaeology and the Institute of History attached to
the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova.
The main subject of this initiative is the Dacian site of
Rudi, associated with the Ptolemean town of
Maetonium (Geography). Also included are neolithic
settlements and burial grounds as well as sites
belonging to the Halstatt and Laten periods, the
Scythian culture and the Middle Ages, all closely
concentrated within the borders of this single
ecological and landscape reserve. Depending on what
resources are obtained, it is planned to explore the
following themes: 1. chronological and cultural change
within the Halstatt and Laten periods; 2. the
interaction of oriental and occidental cultures; and 3.
culture and environment studies.

The scientific programme of the Fund includes various
forms of cooperation: joint excavations, research on
the themes outlined above, publications, etc. The Fund
will gratefully accept any kind of support, including
financial help. The address of the Fund is: Museum of
Archaeology, 35, Banulescu-Bodoni str. 277012,
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.

Eugeniu Sava
Igor Manzura



A report by James Steele, Research Assistant,
University of Southampton, England

This report summarizes debate at a recent conference
on Bhutan held in London (SOAS, March 1993).
Archaeological activity in Bhutan is slight to
non-existent, although there is a current UNESCO
monument listing program. Moreover, there are no
plans for change in this in the immediate future. With
WAC 3 in New Delhi next year, however, a focus on
the politics of cultural identity in a South Asian
country just now feeling the impact of modernization,
with its effect on traditional life, may provide some
additional insight into the nature and dynamics of
heritage issues.

Bhutan is a small, landlocked Eastern Himalayan
polity (pop. c. 600,000), its economy predominantly
one of pastoralism and subsistence agriculture, with
extensive (but not yet intensively exploited) timber,
hydropower, and mineral resources. Its dominant trade
and political partner is India, which is also the
dominant donor state for external aid.

Modernization began in the early 1960s, partly as a
political response to the possibility of annexation to
China, and was guided in matters of strategic planning
by India. Prior to this, Bhutan was genuinely in a
medieval time frame, a self-isolating Mahayana
Buddhist feudal agrarian society governed by absolute
monarchy. But its strategic importance as a buffer
state in the Eastern Himalayan zone with respect to
China and (more distantly) Russia had been
appreciated by the British, who also recognized its
value as a client state for post-1946 India. The
modernization process began with establishing a
bureaucracy and a transport infrastructure, and since
has expanded to education, health,
telecommunications, and industry (notably a big
hydropower plant exporting energy to India).

While the political framework remains that of an
absolute monarchy, with effective power centred on
the capital, Thimpu, there has been increasing
devolution of power to district and local councils,
which are democratically accountable and which have
played an essential role in modernization. Despite full
employment and generally high nutritional levels,
however, Bhutan remains in GDP terms one of the
world's least developed nations. The cultural impact of
the development process on the Bhutanese population
was curtailed by a number of factors: the country had
no agricultural labour surplus, and thus relatively little
tendency towards urbanization, while the king
attempted to control the rate of influence of foreign
culture within Bhutan.

Recently, latent stresses and contradictions in this
situation have surfaced in the form of ethnic conflict,
causing speculation as to the future of the dominant
Bhutanese social and political order. This has become
known as the "southern problem": with modernization
and the development of communications with India to
the south, a substantial economic migration into the
country occurred from neighbouring states with labour
surpluses, notably by ethnic Nepalese. This more
recent segment of the population is localized to the
more industrial southern part of Bhutan, and has come
to make up a substantial proportion of that population.

In 1988, a census was initiated to determine the
demographic characteristics of the population of
Bhutan. However, it was conducted by central


government officials, rather than delegated to local
village headmen, because it was suspected that there
had been extensive abuse of immigration law to bring
Nepalese into the country, for example by wholesale
adoption or by fraud. The results of the census have
not yet been released, and a political war of statistics
has made it impossible to assess the precise magnitude
of the proportion of the Bhutanese population which is
ethnically Nepalese.

This group has been the subject of recent aggressive
policies of assimilation or rejection emanating from
the agrarian/pastoralist Buddhist "drukpa" elite in the
north. These policies, and the consequent exodus of
upward of 40,000 Nepali Bhutanese to refugee camps
in southeastern Nepal, have brought Bhutan into
international media attention. Most incendiary,
perhaps, was the perceived political motivations of the
1988 census. The assimilationist policies included
language standardization measures (with dzongkha -
temple speech - as the standard), obligatory dress
codes mandating wearing drukpa folk costume, and
banning of viewing Bangladeshi and Indian television,
which all appeared to discriminate against the
non-drukpa sectors of the population. As a
consequence, since 1989 episodes of "anti-national"
violence by underground activists of the "lhotsampa"
(Nepali Bhutanese) population in the south have
become frequent, and the refugee camps have become
centres of agitation against the government in Thimpu.

It is, perhaps, refreshing to report the absence of an
archaeological dimension to this episode of Bhutanese
nation-building. If cultural change is the inevitable
product of increased cultural self-awareness, then that
process of change is still getting under way in Bhutan,
and will inevitably ramify into a formal heritage
policy in the course of time. Nonetheless, much of the
pattern of development of a rhetoric of national
identity has a familiar tone, with its exaggeration of
the extent and historical depth of national cultural
norms. Indeed, there are scholarly disputes already
over the interpretation of records of Nepali Bhutanese
who lived in late nineteenth century south Bhutan.

The case of Bhutan has, however, a peculiar
resonance. Not only is this a case of a late developer
which had appeared capable of controlling the
development process and its effects on traditional
culture, but it is also the only surviving case of a
Buddhist monarchy in the Eastern Himalayas. It is a
country in which the attitudes to nature characteristic
of that religion have prevailed: a conservationist
attitude to natural and cultural resources appeared
before, and not in the wake of, their over-exploitation.
Indeed, the Head of Antiquities is a Buddhist monk,
and Buddhists are wary of the secularizing influence
of historical and archaeological enquiries. Also, many
of the most interesting monuments are still part of the
"living tradition" - so much so that some have a more
than symbolic significance. So the government is very
careful about who goes in to the country and what
they do while they are there (for instance, some of the
Buddhist monasteries are no longer open to

Whether decentralization, the syncretism of Buddhism
and the traditional leading role of the monarchy will
prove adequate to the challenge of economic
modernization and of ethnic conflicts, with their roots
in the development process and its wider South Asian
geopolitical context, remains to be seen - as will
Bhutan's response to pressure, both internal and
external, for the exploitation of cultural heritage in
these troubled times.



The University of New England, Armidale, NSW,
sponsored a research conference entitled Archaeology
in the Early 1990s. Held on August 22-24, 1992, UNE
post-graduates (and WAC Members) Claire Smith,
Christine Lovell-Jones, and Heather Burke, organized
the meeting. The twenty-one presentations each had a
discussant, followed by audience reactions. The
interaction between indigenous peoples, especially
Australian Aboriginals, and archaeologists figured
prominently in the papers. It was clear that Australian
archaeology has had substantial experience in these
interactions from which the rest of the world can
learn. Discussion of the papers showed that Australian
archaeology is in the process of defining its own
theory and data, borrowing less from Europe and
North America. The organizers plan publication of
selected papers in the near future. Those interested in
acquiring more information or copies of the program
and draft papers should contact Claire Smith at the
Department of Archaeology and Paleoanthropology,
UNE, Armidale 2351, NSW, AUSTRALIA.

The second conference was the Second Congress of
the Australian Rock Art Research Association
(AURA), held in Cairns between August 30 and
September 4, 1992. Organized by an international
academic committee, nearly 100 papers were presented
by individuals from twenty countries. Major themes
reflected the ongoing priorities of rock art research,
and included Rock Art Studies: The Post-Stylistic Era,
Where Do We Go From Here?; Rock Art and
Information Exchange; Rock Art Studies as a
Curriculum for Teaching; Spatial Considerations in
Rock Art; The Dating of Rock Art; Preservation of
Rock Art; Management of Rock Art Imagery; Rock
Art of Northern Queensland; The Ethics of Rock Art
Research; and a management workshop on Indigenous
Experiences and Perceptions. Apparent in many
sessions were questions about whether rock art can be
considered a separate discipline apart from either
archaeology or anthropology. For a copy of the
program, write to Archaeological Publications, PO
Box 216, Caufield South, Victoria 3162, AUSTRALIA
and ask for Occasional AURA Publication No. 7.



West African Archaeological Association /
Association Ouest Africaine d'Arch ologie,
6th Colloquium

The West African Archaeological Association plans to
organize its 6th Colloquium from Monday, March
28th to Saturday, April 2nd 1994 at Cotonou, in Benin
Republic. The theme of the Colloquium is
Archaeology and Heritage Care.

After a critical appraisal of the research projects and
the scientific cooperation in archaeology during the
last decade, our association intends to assess the
measures taken and the problems yet to be solved in
the area of preservation of cultural and natural heritage
in Africa in general and more specifically in its
western part. On this occasion, the WAAA/OAAA
would favour a large exchange of experience between
professionals of the study and management of the
heritage on the one hand, and on the other between the
latter and the political and economic decision makers
of the (sub-) region, particularly in the context of the
Economic Community of West African States.

There will also be an Extraordinary General Assembly
of the Association, which will eventually decide on its
mutation into a Non-governmental organization of
professionals of Archaeology.

For further information kindly contact:

Dr. Alexis B.A. Adande
B.P. 1057
Porto-Novo, R publique du B nin
Tel: (229) 21 43 63
Fax: (229) 21 25 25


Antropolog!a '94 Convocatoria
Ciudad Habana, Cuba

El Centro de Antropolog!a de la Academia de Ciencias
de Cuba convoca al Taller Internacional Antropolog!a
'94, que se desarrollar del 29 de marzo al 1ro. de
abril de 1994.


- Promover el intercambio de experiencias en las
l!neas de trabajo te"rico-investigativas de la
Arqueolog!a, la Etnolog!a y ciencias afines.
- Contribuir a desarrollar v!nculos entre especialistas y
crear alternativas de cooperaci"n cientific, en
correspondencia con los intereses del desarrollo de
estas ciencias.


- Contexto te"rico de la investigaci"n arqueol"gica.
- Tecnolog!as prehist"ricas en el Caribe.
- Paleoecolog!a y Paleoeconom!a en el contexto
- Ciencias auxiliares aplicadas a la Arqueolog!a.
- Arqueolog!a hist"rica y subacu tica.
- El problema tnico nacional en Am rica Latina y el
- Identidad cultural en Cuba, el Caribe y
Latinoam rica.
- Influencia africana en la cultural de Cuba y Am rica.
- Raza, clase y sexo desde una perspectiva
- Los estudios etnol"gicos en la actualidad y sus
relaciones conotras ciencias.

Normas para la Presentaci"n de Trabajos:

Los interesados en presentar trabajos deber n enviar
antes del 12 de febrero de 1994 un resumen cuya
extensi"n no exceda las 30 l!neas, mecanografiado a
dos espacios en original y copia. Las ponencias no
deben exceder las 10 cuartillas, mecanografiadas a dos
espacios, las cuales pasar n a formar parte del fondo
de documentos del Centro de Antropolog!a.


El Taller Antropolog!a '94 se desarrollar en el Centro
de Antropolog!a. La cuota de inscripci"n ser de US
$30. Los acompa$antes y estudiantes universitarios
abonar n la cantidad de US $15. El pago del evento
podr realizarse en el momento de la acreditaci"n.

Secretaria: Lic. Isabel Reyes Mora
Centro de Antropolog!a
Calzada de Buenos Aires #111
e/ Agua Dulce y Diana
Cerro, Ciudad Habana, Cuba
CP. 10600.
Tel fono: 70-8926
FAX: (537)338212 " 338213
T lex: 511290 acdcp cu
email (Bitnet): Antropol Ceniai.cu


South African Association of Archaeologists,
Biennial Conference, July 18-20th, 1994
Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Conference Themes and Sessions


This theme will be divided into two sections, dealing
with the precolonial and colonial periods separately.
However, depending on the papers submitted further
groupings may be warranted.

Sequences and Consequences

Subtheme: Beyond stone tool typology: 100 000 - 15
000 BP as historical process.


Subtheme: Origins of anatomically modern Homo
sapiens: continuity and/or replacement?

Past Environments: New Developments

Short Research Reports


Additional Information

During the conference there will be sessions on the
organization of site recording and recording centres,
problems facing postgraduate students, contract
archaeology and burials and human remains.


In the current spirit of building bridges across the
African subcontinent, the Organizing Committee
would like to encourage attendance and participation at
this event by archaeologists from, or working in,
southern and eastern Africa. Colleagues who are
interested in attending the conference and offering
contributions are asked to contact the SAAA 94
Organising Committee.

Organizing Committee

Tim Maggs, Aron Mazel, Frans Prins & Gavin

Address: Natal Museum
Private Bag 9070
3200 South Africa


Pan African Association of Prehistory and Related
Studies, 10th Congress, September 1995, First

The University of Zimbabwe History Department and
the National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe
are pleased to announce that they will jointly host the
10th Congress of the Pan African Association of
Prehistory and Related Studies. The last Congress was
held in Jos, Nigeria, 10 years ago.

The Congress will be held over 5 days at the
University of Zimbabwe in early September 1995. The
actual dates will be given in the Second

Below is a provisional list of academic themes:

Quaternary Geology
Hominid Evolution
Palaeoenvironmental Studies
The African Stone Age
The African Iron Age
Early African Food Production
Spatial Analysis
Interpretation of Cultural Change
The Development of Complexity
Information Technology and Archaeology
Cultural Resource Management

Suggestions of additional academic themes for the
sessions are welcome.


Ordinary US $100
Student US $50
Accompanying Person US $50

The registration fee, payable after circulation of the
Second Announcement, entitles Members to full
participation in the Congress and to a discount on the
eventual cost of the published proceedings.

For more information, contact:

Gilbert Pwiti
History Department (PAA)
University of Zimbabwe
P.O. Box MP167
Mount Pleasant
FAX (263) (4) 732828


Professor Mario D. Zamora

We regret to inform you that a long-time Member of
WAC, Professor Mario D. Zamora, has died. Tomoko
Hamada, Chair and Executive Secretary of the 14th
International Congress of Anthropological and
Ethnological Sciences, sent the following letter to Dr.
Larry Zimmerman, Executive Secretary of WAC.

The College of William & Mary
Department of Anthropology
September 20, 1993

Dear Dr. Zimmerman,

It is with deep sadness that I inform you of the death
of Professor Mario D. Zamora, 58, professor of
anthropology and president-elect of the IUAES on
Thursday, August 12, in Richmond, VA.

Throughout his 20-year tenure at this University, Dr.
Zamora was tireless in his efforts to promote what he
called anthropological diplomacy. He studied in the
Philippines and India, and received his Ph.D. from
Cornell University. Former professor of anthropology
and dean of the University of the Philippines at
Baguio, he was also director general of the Philippine


government's National Research Center for Ethnic
Minorities and head of the Museum and Institute of
Ethnology and Archaeology.

A specialist on India and the Philippines, he published
more than ten books and numerous articles. Dr.
Zamora was the first Adlai Stevenson Research Fellow
to the United States from the Philippines and was
honored by his alma mater in 1980 as one of the 10
recipients of the Outstanding Filipino Overseas Award
in 1979 in the field of education. He taught at the
University in Trondheim, Norway, as a Fulbright

His ties with international organizations took him to
many parts of the world. Most recently he was in
Mexico to finalize plans for the 14th World Congress
of the IUAES, which will be held in Williamsburg the
summer of 1998. I as chair of anthropology have been
named executive secretary for the Congress. I will
carry on Dr. Zamora's work for the meeting. He is
survived by his wife, Dr. Maria Luz Mercado; four
daughters, three sons, his father, Leon Zamora;
brothers and sisters; and three grandchildren.

We have established the Mario D. Zamora Memorial
Fund that will be used for the 14th ICAES. All
memorials and contributions may be sent to the Mario
D. Zamora Memorial Fund, c/o Dept. of
Anthropology, College of William and Mary, P.O. Box
8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795.

Sincerely yours,

Tomoko Hamada, Chair and Executive Secretary of
the 14th ICAES


Albert Ernest Glock 1925-1992

Albert E. Glock, Professor of Archaeology and
Director of the Institute of Archaeology at Birzeit
University, was shot and killed by an unknown,
masked assassin on January 19, 1992, on the West
Bank near Jerusalem. This citizen of the United States
was born in Gifford, Idaho, held a Master of Divinity,
another of Theology, and earned a PhD in Near
Eastern Languages at the University of Michigan in
1968. From 1957 to 1976, he was Professor of Old
Testament Theology at Concordia Teacher's College,
River Forest, Illinois. In 1970 he joined the Albright
Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem as
Research Professor, and became Director of the
Institute from 1978 to 1980. In 1976 he was appointed
Professor of Archaeology at Birzeit University, where
he built and directed the Institute of Archaeology until
his death. His deep insights into and perspectives on
historical processes defined the wide scope of his
research and teaching. His experiences with people and
events in Jerusalem and the surrounding region made
him aware of the threat to the ethnographic,
archaeological, and cultural heritage of that troubled
area. His teaching, therefore, focused upon Palestinian
archaeology from early prehistory to the Ottoman
period, and he emphasized the important role of
ethnoarchaeological research in retrieving and
preserving that heritage.

His concern for rigorous scientific methods in
archaeological theory and practice made him a
demanding as well as a supportive teacher. He spared
himself and others no effort and expense in searching
out the most advanced archaeological techniques,
methods, theories, and expertise to improve the
program he was directing. Despite the restricted access
to scientific research facilities in the occupied
territories, and the frequent interruptions and closures
of Birzeit University by the Israeli military authorities,
he dedicated all his efforts to educating a generation
of indigenous scholars whose professional training
qualifies them to help preserve yet another endangered
cultural heritage of our modern world.

Only due to his personal integrity, his sensitive
intelligence, and his impeccable scholarly reputation
was he able to persevere so long in what was and is
the impossible situation. He understood very clearly
the contradictions, ambiguities, and personal danger
inherent in the course he charted. He unhesitatingly
accepted the risks, and achieved remarkable successes
in the face of persistent, multifaceted, and violent

Albert Glock's murder deprived him - who was about
to retire - of the peace and leisure to complete the
recording of his life's work. His murder also deprived
the world of the culminating fruits of his scholarship,
which was focused upon a unique, fascinating, but
bitterly divided, people and their cultural heritage.

Helga Seeden, American University in Beirut,
Patty Jo Watson, Washington University, USA


A Brief Note on the WAC Executive Meeting held
in Nairobi, Kenya, January 1993

by Naftal Z. Kitandu

WAC Indigenous Representative
Hadza - Tanzania

I am very grateful to all those who enabled me to
attend this conference. I never dreamed that it would
be possible, but I was able to make the journey from
Tanzania with the financial support of the World
Archaeological Congress.

The conference was very important to indigenous
people, as it encouraged us to join together and


consider social and economic issues that we all face
today. We were especially concerned with how best to
take advantage of economic development opportunities
while protecting our traditional cultures. One
important issue was the critical role of education in
promoting sustainable development and ensuring
effective public participation in decision making. Our
nation has established universal primary education and
adult education campaigns, but information on
improving the environment through education is
something relatively new to us. We now have local
and regional studies of environmental health, on
problems such as safe drinking water, sanitation and
the operation of local and regional ecosystems. I also
found out about a group called the Malihai of
Tanzania, who help to inform people about educational
and developmental issues.

I learned that there is still a considerable lack of
awareness regarding the interrelation of human
activities and environment and that scientific training
is one of the most important tools in making possible
the transition to a more ecologically sustainable world.
The ideas I have gained about this subject through
interaction with other indigenous and non-indigenous
representatives from around the world may help my
home community, the Hadzabe. Environment is clearly
important to us, as we hunt animals and gather wild
fruits and honey, and some of us are trying farming
and cattle-keeping. If we can obtain new
environmentally sound technologies and, most
important, the know-how to apply them and to train
people in our own communities as scientific
technicians, we will be able to cope better with
problems such as the famine currently affects our

I hope that conferences such as this continue, as they
make people aware of the many indigenous
communities in the world and make us indigenous
peoples more aware of each other and the problems
we share.


A Report on an Elementary School Presentation in
Kenya on Native Americans and Archaeology

by Ben Rhodd
Indigenous Executive Member, WAC
Archaeologist, State Archaeological Research Center
Rapid City, South Dakota, USA

The WAC and Inter-Congress and Executive Board
meeting conducted in Kenya was not just work for the
Executive and Inter-Congress coordinators; I was
approached after the Inter-Congress to give an
elementary school presentation on Native Americans
and archaeology on February 3, 1993 at Lavington
Primary School, a private tuition facility in Nairobi.
The school asked for a lecture on Native peoples of
North America and what archaeologists do in their

I spoke for an hour to the 5th and 6th standard classes,
consisting of approximately 65 students, and, in
covering my subject, stressed the need to pursue and
acquire a higher education degree. The Headteacher,
Mrs. Florence Mutinba, coordinated the presentation
and gave me and my wife Juanita a tour of the facility

During this tour we noticed that the school has a
limited but functional library that is in need of
additional books. They had a few science magazines,
but they were quite dated. After seeing this problem,
Juanita and I donated a one year subscription for two
children's general science magazines published in the
United States.

If other Members of WAC are interested in donating
books to this school - particularly publications on
science in general or any publications on archaeology
for the general public, please send them to the
following address:

Lavington Primary School
c/o Mrs. Florence Mutinba
PO Box 25044
Nairobi, Kenya


WAC NEWS carries information about new
publications. This is a service only and does not
constitute endorsement. We would be pleased to
receive notices of any books of interest to our
Members. WAC does not have a central library and
books sent will be distributed to Third World

Kunaitupii. Coming Together on Native Sacred Sites.
Proceedings of the First Joint Meeting of the
Archaeological Society of Alberta and the Montana
Archaeological Society, May 2-6, 1990, Waterton
Lakes National Park, Alberta, Canada. Calgary:
Archaeological Society of Alberta. B. O. K. Reeves &
M. A. Kennedy (eds). 1993. 283 pages, illustrations.

* 25 papers, transcripts and panel discussions by
native spiritual elders, traditionalists, leaders,
lawyers, archaeologists, and non-native ministers,
anthropologists, archaeologists and administrators.

* order from: Archaeological Society of Alberta, 314
Valiant Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3A
0Y1. Phone orders: (403) 288-1837. Fax orders: (403)
220-5227. ISBN 0-88953-184-6