Re: Race (primary definition)

James Howard (
Sun, 17 Nov 1996 14:31:27 GMT (mb) wrote:
>Why do we continue to use "race" to describe human biology? Does the
>concept still carry objective value? Is there a WORKING definition of

James Howard responds:
We continue to use race, because there are differences in groups of people that
obviously separate them. Since these differences overlap, it is important that
a "working definition" exist. Just below is my definition; it is based on gene
expression. This form of gene expression may be affected by the environment and
interbreeding. It is somewhat plastic, therefore, I think it directly
participated in hominid evolution.

>In article <56k8tv$>, (James Howard)

>> Since the human genome is, essentially, shared by all, I suggest the
>differences in race result from differences in gene expression. I suggest
>testosterone is the molecule that causes major differences in gene
>expression, that result in the differences described as "race." Humans
>and chimpanzees exhibit major differences in testosterone; human "races"
>exhibit major differences in testosterone. Changes in testosterone, along
>with only slight differences in genes, will produce the appearance of
>different species of hominids over time.
>> James Howard