Re: Indo-European Studies

Virendra Verma (
14 JUL 95 10:54:26

In article <>, (Randall J. Burns) writes...
>> 1. How could a few so called uncivilized Aryans eliminate or displace
>> an earlier advanced Indus civilization unless they were supported
>> by weapons and force from their ancestral land or the then native
>> population of India was savage?
>Well, advanced weapons technology!=civilization.

True. Does advanced civilization means stupidity? That's the only way
uncivilized/barbarians few (i.e. Aryans) would be able to kick those
natives to the south in favor of a less civilized culture of the Aryans.

The only cause (thanks to science) of disappearance of the so called Harappan
culture was drying up of the river Sarasawati as researched by Indian
scientists as per attached article (BTW, none of the scientists belong
to BJP!!!!)

>> 3. Casteism is unique to Vedic people. If they came from outside,
>> why casteism does not exist in the other western cultures.
>Well, Norway, to this day has a well defined class system:

Is this class system similar to Vedic caste system? How many
classes they have? Is it based on profession or race? How do you
know that Vedic caste system is derived from Norwegian system?
Is this system the crux of Norwegian culture?


-- Virendra Verma


Saraswati once flowed through Thar


(This article excerpted from the Times of India, Bombay, 24 July 1992)

JODHPUR, July 23.

The legendary Saraswati once flowed through the Thar desert. Scientist at the
Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) have confirmed this after
extensive research on the likely courses of the Saraswati, referred to as
the "mother of rivers" in the Rig Veda.

Earlier, the scholars had identified the river with the present dry bed of
the Ghaggar in Haryana and Rajasthan and the Raini, the Wahinda and the
Nara streams in Pakistan. Though it was agreed that the river frequently
shifted its course, it could not be traced from its source in the Shivalik
hills in Himalayas to the estuary.

Now through satellite imagery, aerial photographs and field surveys, CAZRI
scientists have confirmed that the mighty river first of all ran through
the Thar desert.

"It is estimated that the river flowed through the desert between one million
and 40,000 years ago and shifted westward. The present Ghaggar valley took
shape between when the Saraswati ran through this course," says Dr Amal
Kar, senior geomorphologist.

The earliest course of the Saraswati has been constructed through Nohar,
Surjansar, Sirsa, Lunkanasar and Bikaner, and Pachpadra where the river
was met by the present Luni.

One outlet of the Saraswati into the sea was at Lokpat which was also a major
seat of learning and a port. Further downstream was Narayan Sarovar which
is mentioned in the Mahabharta as a holy place.

"Then climatic changes and earthquakes ( the Rann of Katchh is prone to
tectonic activities) forced the river to change its course and move
westward. Climatic changes induced aridity which caused the sand to choke
off the river course," says Dr Kar.

Subsequently, the river occupied what is now known as the dry bed of the
Ghaggar between Nohar and Anupgarh. "Here pre-Harappan and Harappan
flourished at Alibangan and Pilibangan. Later, another civilization
thrived at Rangmaha (near the present Hanumangarh)," says Dr Kar.

According to him, beyond Anupgarh the river used to flow through Sakli,
Islamgarh(in Pakistan), Ghantial, Shahgarh(in Jaisalmer), and Mahilamungra
(in Pakistan) and then through the present course of the Nara. More shifts
took place later on and the river identified itself with the Raini, the
Ahindi, and the HakraNara in Pakistan. Initially, it ceased to flow
through even these courses and joined the Sutlej near Ahmedpur(East) in

"Earlier, the Sutlej known as the Satadru in the Vedic period used to be a
tributary of the Saraswati first joining it near Jakhal and later near
Hanumangarh and Anupgarh. During the Mahabharata period when the Sutlej
moved away from the river (due to tectonic and climatic reasons), the
Saraswati was left with its own meagre flow, leaving a dry valley," Dr
Kar explains.

In the Mahabharata, the Saraswati or the Sapta Saraswati (system of seven
rivers) is referred to as a dying river which went underground near
Binasan. "This place is near Sirsa," he says.

Another main tributary of the Saraswati, according to the epic, was the
Drishadvati which used to merge with the Saraswati after flowing through
Jind, Narnaul, Hissar and Nohar. Scholars have identified it with the
present Chautang, carrying the Hansi-Hissar branch of the western
Yamuna canal.

The dry bed of the Ghaggar and the buried courses of the Saraswati still
yield sub-surface water in the desert. "This is contributed by the
Himalayan precipitation flowing subterraneously through the buried
courses of the Saraswati as meagre rainfall here(150 mm) cannot contribute
substantially to the perennial supply of sub-surface water," says Dr Kar

Field investigation by the researchers had confirmed the existence of buried
courses. It has been found that the areas through which the Saraswati
flowed supports lush green vegetation even during the summer months in
the desert. Few wells dug along the tract have yielded sweet water only
at 30 to 40 metres.