refs re: crying as a marine marker
18 Oct 1995 08:28:18 GMT

Frey W.H. (1985) 'The Mystery Of Tears' Harper and Row, London.

Smith, Homer W. 'From Fish To Philosopher' Boston, Little, Brown and Co.
about the albatross 'Nasal dripping was observed to occur when the birds
had been fighting with each other, during their ritual dancing, or even
during the excitement of feeding time.'

R.M. Lockley in 'Grey Seal, Common Seal'
the seal's tears 'flow copiously, as in man, when the seal is alarmed,
frightened, or otherwise emotionally agitated'

Charles Darwin 'The Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals'
Chicago, University of Chicago Press 1965.
'The Indian elephant is known sometimes to weep. Sir E. Tennent, in
describing those which he saw captured and bound in Ceylon, says they
"lay motionless on the ground, with no other indication of suffering than
the tears which suffused their eyes and flowed incessantly". Speaking of
another elephant he says: "When overpowered and made fast, his grief was
most affecting; his violence sank to utter prostration, and he lay on the
ground, uttering choking cries, with tears dribbling down his cheeks". In
the Zoological Gardens the keeper of the Indian elephants positively
asserts that he has several times seen tears rolling down the face of the
old female, when distressed by the removal of the young one.'

Larousse Encyclopaedia of Animal Life
About the chimpanzee 'The range of its emotional life is considerable,
and it is able to express surprise, interest, disgust, fear, anger, joy,
sadness, and even despair, the latter being evinced by fits of sobbing.
Only tears are lacking"