Re: Miocene and Pliocene apes familiy tree?
Harry Erwin (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sun, 23 Jul 1995 17:08:16 -0400
This posting reflects the current state of my database.
In article <email@example.com>, Alex Duncan
> In article <firstname.lastname@example.org> Joerg Rhiemeier,
> email@example.com writes:
> >Does anyone know more details about how the different miocene and pliocene
> >apes (e.g. Proconsul, Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus, Kenyapithecus,
> >Dryopithecus, Oreopithecus, Gigantopithecus, ...) relate to each other
> >and to modern apes, and human? ---trimmed---
> Ramapithecus has been lumped into Sivapithecus, and doesn't exist
> anymore. Both Siva and Gigantopithecus are now recognized as sister
> groups of Pongo.
G. seems closer to Pongo.
> I don't think anyone really knows what to do w/ Kenyapithecus anymore.
> It shows remarkable dental similarities to Sivapithecus, but I don't know
> that anyone is comfortable with placing it in the Siva/Pongo clade. Most
> of the material is dental, mandibular, or maxillary.
K. seems to be the sister group of the Pongines.
> Dryopithecus is a controversial genus. It almost certainly lies either
> just within the large ape clade, or as a sistergroup to the rest of the
> large apes. Some of the premaxillary/maxillary anatomy looks "African
> hominoid", but there are other features that may indicate relations w/
> Siva/Pongo. As is usually the case, more material is needed.
D. appears to be the sister group of the AA clade, with the Pongines being
the sister group of the Dryopithecines.
> Oreopithecus is weird. It almost certainly lies WITHIN the extant
> hominoid clade (although there have been claims its a cercopithecoid).
> It shows similarities to several different extant groups, including
> gibbons and humans. I don't really think anyone knows what to do with it.
The database likes the gibbons as a sister group of O., and O. as the
sister group of the Kenyapithecines.
> Proconsul IS NOT considered a common ancestor of the great apes and Homo,
> or even of all extant hominoids. It is too primitive, lacking many
> derived features shared by all living taxa. It is a sister clade to all
> extant apes.
Yes. The database has the pliopithecines as the sister group of the
cercopithecines and the pair as the sister group of the proconsulids
> The best candidates for common ancestry of African 'noids (including
> humans) are Dryopithecus and Ouranopithecus (= Graecopithecus?).
> Ouranopithecus especially shows potentially apomorphic features (African
> pattern premax/palate articulation, well-developed supraorbital tori)
> that link it with African apes. There was a recent suggestion that
> Ouranopithecus is in fact a sister group to gorillas, and the discoverers
> of much of the recent material make a reasonable case for Ouranopithecus
> being the earliest hominid (I use "hominid" in the traditional sense
Yes. My DB suggests it's about as far from Gorilla as P. paniscus is from
P. trog. That's probably wrong, given the lack of post cranial data.
> Another very interesting Late Miocene (~8 Myr) hominoid is Motopithecus
> from the Samburu Hills of Kenya. The genus is based upon a single
> maxillary fragment that superficially looks a great deal like a gorilla.
> However, the enamel is thick.
> There are no good candidates for a common ancestor of chimp and human.
> A. ramidus is the closest thing to that yet, and it is probably
> post-divergence (i.e., more closely related to humans than to chimps).
It's a bit late, too. In any case it's close.
Home Page: http://osf1.gmu.edu/~herwin (try again if necessary)
PhD student in comp neurosci: "Glitches happen" & "Meaning is emotional"