Re: AAT Questions...

Pat Dooley (
8 Jul 1995 23:06:50 -0400 (Gerrit Hanenburg) quotes "The
Natural History of The Gorilla" by A.F.Dixson:

>"Two kinds of sweat glands are found in the skin,the apocrine and
>eccrine glands. males the armpits contain many large apocrine
>glands arranged in four to seven layers.This so-called "axillary
>organ" is responsible for the rank odour of silverbacks,......
>Eccrine sweat glands are found in many areas of the skin,but the
>highest concentrations are found in the palms of the hands and soles
>of the feet." Columbia University Press.1981.

In humans, the acoprines have all but disappeared. Those that remain
judicious use of Ban or similar products to mitigate the "silver back"
The eccrines are in high concentration across the whole human skin where
their primary function is sweating. Those on the palms and soles still
moisture when the human is stressed; an atavism harking back to arboreal

The conventional wisdom was that eccrine glands were sweat glands, as your
quote shows. V.E. Solokov, something of an expert in mammalian skin
declared that "eccrine sweating is a human characteristic as unique as
or bipedalism." Most mammals sweat using acoprine glands.

Morgan cites :

V. E. Sokolov, 1982. Mammal Skin. University of California Press

Gary G. Schwartz and Leonard A. Rosenblum, 1981
Allometry of hair density and the evolution of human
hailessness, in Am, J. Phys. Anthrop., 55, 9-12.

R.M. Martin, 1977. Mammals of the Seas. B. T. Batsford.

W. Sokolov, 1962. Adaptations of the mammalian skin to
the aquatic mode of life, in Nature, 195, 464 - 466

J.S. Weiner and K. Hellmann 1960. The sweat glands,
in Biol. Rev., 35, 141-186.

J.S. Strauss and F. J. Ebling, 1970. Control and function
of skin glands in mammals, in Memoirs of the Society for
Endocrinology, 18, 341-371.

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen et al., 1957. Body temperature of
the camel and its relation to water economy, in Am. J.
Phys., 188, 188 - 189.

Derek Denton, 1982. The Hunger for Salt. An Anthropological,
Physiological and Medical Analysis. Springer-Verlag.

Hancock and J. B. S. Haldane, 1939. The loss of water
and salts through the skin and the corresponding
physiological adjustments, in Proc. Roy. Soc., B105,
43 - 60

W. Montagna, 1972. The skin of non-human primates, in
Am. Zool., 12, 109-124.

W. Montagna, 1982. The evolution of human skin, op. cit.
Chapter 5.

William R. Keating et al., 1986. Increased platelet and
red cell counts, blood vlscosity and plasma cholesterol
levels during heat stress and cerebral thrombosis; in
Am. J. Med., 81, 795 - 800.

D.B. Dill et al., 1933. Salt Economy in extreme dry heat,
in Journal of Biological Chemistry, 100, 755-768.

C.L. Evans and D. F. G. Smith, 1956. Sweating responses
in the horse, in Proc. Roy. Soc., B145, 61 - 81

Sheila A. Mahoney, 1980. Cost of locomotion and heat
balance during rest and running from 0€ to 55€C in a
patas monkey, in Journal of Applied Physiology, 49, 61-81.

John K. Ling, 1965. Functional significance of sweat
glands and sebaceous glands in seals, in Nature, 208,

amongst others.

Pat Dooley