J. Philippe Rushton (RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA)
Tue, 18 Oct 1994 20:18:38 -0400
between races too warrant evolutionary theories. Wrong. Too much
reliance on Gould and other debunkers.
In my book and published articles (am I allowed to cite the journal
Intelligence, 1992) I review 150 years of research including work
carried out by the Japanese and several studies done since 1980
showing a racial gradient in brain size of Asians/Europeans/Africans.
In the 1992 article cited above I examined a random stratified sample
of 6,325 U.S. Army personnel measured in 1988 for purpose of fitting
helmets and uniforms. External head measures of length x width x height
gave cranial capacities of 1,416 cm3 for Asian-Americans, 1,380 cm3 for
European-Americans and 1,359 cm3 for African-Americans after covariance
for height and weight. Same ranks for unadjusted measures.
Beals et al.'s data in 1984 Current Anthroplogy based on endocranial
volume shows similar figures. Asians, 1,415 cm3; Europeans, 1,362 cm3;
Africans, 1,268 cm3.
Using autopsy brain weight from an article in the 1980 Archives of
Pathology we find European-Americans average 1,322 cm3 and African-Americans
average 1,222 grams. (I meant grams in previous line).
Thus converging data from three separate techniques (external head
measures, endocranial volume, wet brain weight) triangulate on the same
conclusion. There is much, much more data I am willing to provide/
discuss if the net is intersted.
Magnetic resonance imaging studies which, in effect, construct a
3-dimensional model of the brain in vivo, show about a 0.40 correlation
with IQ test scores, thus confirming about 30 studies finding a 0.20
correlation between external head perimeter and IQ test scores.
See for example the work of Nancy Andreasen and her colleagues in
the 1993 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.
New neuroscience work must be integrated with old anthropology.